KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA
Nation Religion King
Preah Bat Norodom Sihamony
King of the Kingdom of Cambodia
– Having seen the Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia
– Having seen Royal Decree No NS/RKT/0704/124 of July 15, 2004 on the
Appointment of the Royal Government of Cambodia
– Having seen Royal Kram No 02/NS/94 of July 20, 1994, promulgating the
Law on the Organization and Functioning of the Council of Ministers
– Having seen Royal Kram No NS/RKM/0196/01 of January 24, 1996,
promulgating the Law on the Establishment of the Ministry of Education,
Youth and Sport
– Pursuant to the proposal of Samdech Akas Mohasena Badey Teijun HUN
SEN, Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Cambodia and the Minister of
Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport
The Law on Education enacted by the National Assembly on the 19th of October 2007 at its 7th plenary session of the third legislature and entirely approved by the Senate on its form and legal concepts on the 21st of November 2007 at its 4th plenary session of the second legislature.
Article 1: Goals
This law is aim to determine the national measures and criteria for establishing the completely comprehensive and uniform education system ensuring the principles of freedoms of studies in compliance with the Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia.
Article 2: Objective
The objective of this law is to develop the human resources of the nation by providing a lifelong education for the learners to acquire knowledge, skills, capacities, dignity, good moral behavior and characteristics, in order to push the
learners to know, love and protect the national identification, cultures and language.
Article 3: Scope
This law covers all educational programs, research studies, technical and vocational education and training at all public and private levels of the education
system although these educational programs are offered by the educational
institutions or by education personnel. Its also covers the education administration and management at all levels, except for the education on religious scriptures, technical education, education of military strategy and national security, education on the management of territorial administration, education provided by Royal School of Administration and technical and professional education for the courts offered by the training institution of legal and court professions. This law also covers individual persons and other relevant persons such as children at age of enrolment, learners, parents or guardians, groups or clubs of learners, educational personnel, as well as education license holders and education license beneficiaries except for individual persons involved in religious education and practice, technique, military strategy and security, territorial administration, Royal School of Administration and court professions.
Article 4: Definition of education and terminology
In this law, “Education” refers to the process of educational development or training for physical, mental and spiritual development through all activities that
allow the learners to obtain a set of knowledge, skills, capacities and values to
become individuals who are useful for themselves, their families, their communities, the nation and the world. The key words used in this law shall be attached as annex to this law.
NATIONAL SUPREME COUNCIL OF EDUCATION
Article 5: Establishment of the National Supreme Council of Education
The National Supreme Council of Education shall be established. This Council has functions:
– Raise policy proposals and strategy for long term which respond to the social and economic development to the Royal government of Cambodia
– Evaluate the tasks related to the education sector, technical and vocational training on time to the Royal government of Cambodia
– Collect all resources for serving education
Article 6: Components and Organization and Functioning
The National Supreme Council of Education shall be lead by the Prime
Minister. The components of the National Supreme Council of Education are
appointed among high officials who have experiences in education, politic,
economy, science, technique, culture. The components of the National Supreme Council of Education shall be determined by Royal Decree. The organization and functioning of the National Council for Education shall be determined by a sub decree. The ministry in charge of education and Accreditation Institution of
Cambodia is the secretariat of the national supreme council of education.
ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT OF EDUCATION
Article 7: Administrative Hierarchy and Education Management
The hierarchy of administration and management of education consist of 4 levels which are the national or central level, the provincial or municipal level, the district or Khan level and the educational institution level. The structure of the hierarchy of administration and management of education shall be stipulated in a separate regulation.
Article 8: Level and Categories of Education
There are three levels of education: primary, secondary and higher education.
There are two types of education: general knowledge and technical and vocational education.
Article 9: Monitoring, controlling and Evaluation System
The education sector shall have the education monitoring, controlling and
evaluation system including the controlling, monitoring, inspection and internal
auditing on work performance. The Ministry in charge of Education shall be responsible for formulating the mechanisms of these monitoring, controlling and Evaluation systems.
Article 10: Educational Establishment
The state shall establish public and private educational establishments. The management of educational establishments shall be determined in a separate regulation.
Article 11: The Formation of Educational Establishments
Public legal entities, private legal entities and/or natural persons have the right to raise the proposal of formation of educational establishments. The Ministry in charge of education shall prepare regulations and principles for the establishment and administration of either public or private educational institution according to their types. The closure, merger, establishing of new subjects, separation and transformation of educational institutions shall be determined in separate regulation. All educational institutions and training classes shall have educational licenses in advance, before operating.
Article 12: Type of educational establishments
The determination of all types of educational establishments shall be in
accordance with their educational mission. The Ministry in charge of education shall prepare regulations and guidelines on the determination of the types of educational establishments.
Article 13: Autonomy of educational institutions
Higher educational institutions shall be provided rights as institutions managerial autonomy. The administrations of higher education institutions shall be based on the principles of accountability, transparency and public interest.
The Ministry in charge of Education shall issue a guideline on the provision of the managerial autonomy to institutions.
Article 14: Issuance of certificates and diplomas
A certificate or diploma shall be awarded to a learner who has fulfilled all the
requirements of the studies set by the educational establishments. A certificate or diploma shall be withdrawn or rejected by the responsible Ministry or educational establishments that issued the certificate or diploma if an inspection discovers the incorrectness of the educational process of the learner or the incorrectness of the decision to award the certificate or diploma to the learner.
The Ministry in charge of Education shall issue precise principles for the awarding of certificates or diplomas to learners.
Article 15: Comprehensive and unique education system
The state shall prepare a comprehensive and unique education system, which
includes formal education, non-formal education, and informal education. Early
childhood education is the preparatory study [level] of the education system.
The education system of Cambodia is comprised of public and private education. The Ministry in charge of Education shall issue the regulation on education system.
Article 16: Early childcare and childhood education
The state shall support early childcare and childhood education from the age
of zero to before kindergarten, generally provided at childcare centers in communities or at home. Kindergarten education shall commence education prior to primary education for preparation to attend primary school. The Ministry in charge of Education and other relevant ministries and institutions shall determine the meanings of early childcare and childhood education.
Article 17: General education
General education shall be the education that allows the learners to progress
their knowledge of morality and good characteristics by enhancing their personal, intellectual and physical capacity by assuring their use of knowledge and fundamental skills. General Education is the fundamental education for learners to continue their studies and receive other training.
General education shall include:
– Primary education or the first level (1st Phumaseksar) of education comprised of grade 1(one) to grade 6 (six) of the formal education program or the equivalent level of education;
– Secondary education or the second level (2nd Phumaseksar) of education comprised of grade 7 (seven) to grade 12 (twelve). The secondary education consists of 2 (two) phases: phase 1 (one) is the lower secondary education comprising grade 7 (seven) to grade 9 (nine), and phase 2 (two) is the upper secondary school comprising grade 10 (ten) to grade 12 (twelve).
Secondary education shall teach learners having complete personality and
characteristic by enhancing the knowledge, skill, vocational training, education of morality, which allow them to participate in the economic and social development and Unofficial translation qualify to continue to study at higher education or technical and vocational training or to participate in the social live.
Basic education is the first 9 (nine) years of education, comprising grade 1 (one) to grade 9 (nine) of the formal general education or the equivalent level of
Article 18: Higher education
Higher Education or the third level (3rd Phumasekar) of education is the education following the secondary education in higher educational establishments. Higher Education shall teach learners to have complete personality and characteristic and promote the scientific, technical, cultural and social researches in order to achieve capacity, knowledge, skill, morality, inventive and creative ideas and enterprise spirit to the development of the country. The framework and requirements of the levels of diplomas and certificates shall be determined by the Ministry in charge of Education. Higher educational establishments are of two types – university and institute. The criteria for the types of higher educational establishments and the admission requirements for higher education establishments shall be determined by the Ministry in charge of Education.
Article 19: Technical and vocational education and training
Technical and vocational education and training cover all professions and skills provided by public and private technical and vocational education and training
institutions, enterprises, communities, family or in co-operation between technical and vocational education and training institutions and enterprises and/or communities and family.
Article 20: Educational personnel training
The state shall train educational personnel prior to and/or in service. Educational personnel shall undergo pedagogical training recognized by the Ministry in charge of Education, except professors and staff working in higher educational establishments. The Ministry in charge of Education shall determine the fundamental programs for educational personnel training, and physical and professional criteria for the recruitment of public and private educational personnel.
QUALITY AND EFFECIENCY OF EDUCATION
Article 21: Quality and efficiency of education
The state shall promote the quality of education to satisfy the basic education and professional needs for the careers of the learners to better improve their capacity and to enable the learners to efficiently participate in the development of the country. The state shall pay attention to equip appropriate and modern technique of teaching and learning to ensure its quality and efficiency. National Education Standards, National Training Standards and/or National Capacity Standards shall be set by the Ministry in charge of Education in line with the
policies of the Supreme National Council of Education.
Article 22: Assessment mechanism to ensure the quality education
Educational institutions shall fulfill the National Education Standards, National
Training Standards and/or National Capacity Standards to improve the quality of
education. Either public or private educational institutions shall establish internal assessment mechanisms to monitor and assess the quality of education themselves and recommend measures for continuing to undertake monitoring and assessment. The internal assessment mechanisms shall be widely open for public participation. The Ministry in charge of Education shall establish external assessment of mechanisms for the implementation or the fulfillment of the requirements of the National Education Standards for educational institutions.
The Ministry in charge of Education and the concerned ministries and institutions shall establish monitoring system on implementation or the fulfillment of the requirement of the capacity standard of the educational establishments in compliance with the policy of the Supreme National Council of Education to evaluate the education quality. The Ministry in charge of Education shall issue the guidelines on procedures for the processes of the monitoring and assessment mechanisms.
Article 23: Education Program
The Ministry in charge of Education shall determine specifically the fundamental education program for general education, characterized as compulsory for implementation at all educational establishments in the Kingdom of Cambodia.
Education of morality and civic, education on how to live together, education for peace, education for sustainable development, and education to respect cultures and traditional values, shall be the main components of the fundamental educational program. The Ministry in charge of Education shall determine a detail framework of curriculums for implementation at all educational levels of Cambodian education system.
Article 24: Languages of teaching and learning
The Khmer Language is the official language and a subject of the fundamental curriculums at public schools providing general education. The private schools providing general education shall have a Khmer educational program as a fundamental subject in their educational programs. The language for Khmer learners of minority Khmer origin shall be determined by Prakas of the Ministry in charge of Education. Foreign languages, which are international languages, shall be specifically determined as subjects for the fundamental educational programs of general education in accordance with the learners’ needs. Unofficial translation
Article 25: Equivalency test
Equivalency tests shall be based on the capacity tests for general education
and capacity tests for technical and vocational education and training and for
higher education. Equivalency tests are the authority of the Ministry in charge of Education in line with the policy of Supreme National Council for Education. The patterns and procedures of the equivalency tests shall be set by a separate regulation.
Article 26: Examination
To assure the quality and efficiency of education, examinations shall be conducted with fairness and justice. The stand in the examination and cheating in
all images are prohibited. The Ministry in charge of Education shall be responsible for preparing the legislative instrument on the examination.
EDUCATION POLICIES, PRINCIPLES, PLANS AND STRATEGIES
Article 27: Determination of education policies, principles, plans and strategies
The Ministry in charge of Education shall set up a master plan for developing the education sector in compliance with the policy of the Supreme National Council of Education, and be responsible for developing, reviewing and modifying education policies, principles, plans and strategies in accordance with the national policies and strategic development plans.
Article 28: Science and technology for education
The state shall promote and support research, development, invention and
production, which are scientific and technological for education to meet the needs of the labor markets and globalization to promote human resource capacity and to enhance the development of the country. The Ministry in charge of education shall determine the policies on science and technology for education at all educational levels of the Cambodian education system in compliance with the policy of the Royal Government of Cambodia.
Article 29: Partnership for education
The state shall widely open the participation of the relevant stakeholders such as public and private sector, national and international organizations, non- governmental organizations and communities in the process of development,
draft, monitoring and assessing the implementation, the review and the amendment of national education policies, plans and strategies. The State shall strongly encourage and support private institutions in the establishment of partnerships providing all kinds of educational services at all levels. Unofficial translation
Article 30: Scholarships and subsidies
The state shall determine a policy on provision of scholarships, subsidies and credits for learners. The state shall encourage natural or artificial person which provide scholarships and subsidies for the learners.
EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS
Article 31: Right to access education
Every citizen has the right to access qualitative education of at least 9 years in public schools free of charge. The Ministry in charge of education shall gradually prepare the policy and strategic plans to ensure that all citizens obtain qualitative education as stipulated by this law.
Article 32: Right of enrolment for grade1 (one) of the general education program
Enrolment of the children for grade 1 (one) of the formal general education
program shall be set at an age of 6 (six) years or at least 70 (seventy) months on
the date of the beginning of the school year.
Article 33: Freedom of religion in education
The state respects the rights and the freedom of religious beliefs. The Ministry in charge of education shall take into consideration Buddhism which is religion of the State. Learners and other persons involved in education shall not be forced to participate, whether directly or indirectly, in religious activities and/or any religious practices as part of the education and/or educational services. Studies of religions in education programs shall be permitted only for general knowledge.
Article 34: Political activities in educational establishments
Educational establishments and institutions shall respect the principles of
neutrality. Political activities and/or propaganda for any political party in educational establishments and institutions shall be completely banned.
Article 35: Rights and Obligations of Learners
The learner’s rights concerning education are:
– The right to free expression of academic views;
– The right to freedom of study;
– The right to access the quality of education; Unofficial translation
– The right to assemble as groups or clubs of the learners for educational purposes.
– The right to examine and make own note about educations
– The right to participate actively and fully in order to develop educational
standards at institutional and national levels, directly or through their
– The right to be respected and paid attention on human rights, especially
the right to dignity, the right to be free from any form of torture or from
physical and mental punishment.
A learner shall have the following obligations:
– Respect regulations of the educational institutions, the gender equity
values by exercising their rights with the spirit of responsibility and the
respect for other persons’ rights;
– To make their best efforts to learn in order to develop their knowledge,
skills, capacity, mentality and dignity.
Article 36: Rights and Obligations of Parents or Guardians
Parents or guardians of minor children, who are dependent, shall have the
– The right to choose the educational programs and educational institutions
to be attended by the learner;
– The right to receive information and study records of the learner from the
– The right to active and full participation in order to develop educational
standards at school and national levels, directly or through their
Parents or guardians of minor children, who are dependent, shall have the
– To take the children, whose age is 6 (six) years or at least 70 (seventy)
months, to enroll in grade 1 (one) of the genera l education program at
schools, that have proper educational certificates;
– To try their best to support the studies of the learners, especially for their
– Kept the relationship between school family and community to participate
in vocational education and reform the educational environment.
Article 37: Rights and Obligations of Educational Personnel
The rights of educational personnel are as follows:
– The right to achieve career value dignity and social high respect
– The right to develop their careers;
– The right to establish or participate in educational personnel associations
or other career associations in accordance with existing law;
– The right to organize public education meetings;
– The right to participate in political affairs in compliance with the existing
– The right to actively and fully participate in developing educational
standards at local and national levels, directly or through their
– The right to access other educational services equitably and the others
right accordance with existing law.
The obligations of the educational personnel are:
– To respect the professional code of ethics. Unofficial translation
– To fulfill other duties that are stipulated in valid law;
– To undertake and develop their work with due high diligence and
Private educational personnel shall have other rights and obligations as stipulated by the existing Labor Law.
Article 38: Special Education
The state encourages and promotes to have special education for disabled persons and outstanding learners who are gifted and/or talented. Special education provided for outstanding learners appropriate to their intelligence and talent, and provided a suitable education for disabled persons. Special education programs shall be formulated by Prakas of the Ministry in charge of Education.
Article 39- Rights of disabled learners
Disabled learners have the same rights as able learners and have separate special rights as follows:
– Disabled learners of either sex have the right to study with able learners if there is sufficient facilitation in the study process for the disabled learner to fulfill the educational program of the educational institutions;
– Disabled learners with special needs have the rights to receive additional
teaching in the regular educational program, which is not a particularly special educational program.
– Disabled learners who are not able to learn with able learners have the right to receive special education in separate special classes. These disabled learners can study at community schools in their locality.
Article 40: Right to request, right to protest, right to complain, right to solution
Parents or guardians, learners and educational personnel, whose rights specified in this law, are violated, have the right to request or protest to the competent educational authority at different levels as well as to the court. The Ministry in charge of education shall issue regulations on procedures for requests, protests and solutions.
Article 41: Right of learners and educational personnel to health checks
Learners and educational personnel in educational institutions with proper educational licenses have the right to access to health checks. The guideline for health checks shall be determined in the Joint-Prakas by the Ministry in charge of Education, and Ministry of Health.
Article 42: Right to advertising and propagandizing educational information
All advertising and propagandizing of educational information shall be authorized by the Ministry in charge of Education. Any misleading on all kinds is absolutely prohibited. The Ministry in charge of Education and related Ministries shall collaborate to prepare the regulations and guidelines on the advertising and propagandizing the educational information.
Article 43: Right to educational information
Educational information of all educational establishments and institutions is
the public information except information about natural persons. Educational
establishments and institutions shall provide the information available to interested persons according to their requests. The modality on educational information provisions shall be determined in Prakas by the Ministry in charge of education.
RESOURCES FOR EDUCATION
Article 44: The Participation, the mobilization and the management of resource for education
State shall promote and encourage generous persons in accordance with appropriateness and necessity recognized that education is the best investment.
Persons, religions groups, families, communities, national and international, non-governmental organizations, and public and private institute have the right to fully participate and provide resource in any form of human capital, in kind or in case with the purpose of supporting and developing the education sector. Managers of education establishments have the right to mobilize legal resource from all sources to develop education establishments. The provision of these resources shall make voluntarily and without conditions.
Article 45: The contracting and responsibilities of publish educational establishments
Public and private artificial persons and natural persons shall have the right to
enter into contracts or agreements with the manager of educational establishment to develop the education sector. All contracts or agreements shall be made according to the laws and serve the full purpose of the educational establishment. Managers of educational establishments shall be responsible for the management and use of all resources in the interest of the educational
establishment. The patterns and procedures of contracting and signing agreements shall be determined in Prakas by the Ministry in charge of Education.
Article 46: The Establishment of Educational Institutions without Educational License
In advance of establishment or opening of Educational establishments and the
vocational training without Educational license as mentioned in article 11 of this law shall be subject to interim fines from 2,000,000.00 (two million) riels to 10,000,000.00 (ten million) riels. In case of recidivous violation, the amount of the fine shall be double the amount fined according to paragraph 1 of this article above.
Article 47: Violation of the use on the type of educational institution
All violence on the use of the type of educational institution in contrast to it’s
missions as notice in article 12 of this law shall be subject to interim fines from
1,000,000.00 (one million) riels to 5,000,000.00 (five million) riels. In case of recidivous violation, the amount of the fine shall be double the amount fined according to paragraph 1 of this article above and suspended temporarily or definitely cancelled the educational license of its educational institution.
Article 48: Violation of the provision on the issuance of certificates or diplomas
All issuance of certificates or diplomas violate to article 14 of this law shall be
punish in cash from 2,000,000.00 (one million) riels to 6,000,000.00 (five million) riels and shall be kept in prison from 1 (one) to 3(three) years.
Article 49: fraudulent examinations
The violator or any person who replace or fraudulent examinations of all forms
as notify in article 26 of this law, shall be subject to interim fines from 1,000,000.00 (one million) riels to 5,000,000.00 (five million) riels. In case of recidivous violation, for violator, the amount of the fine shall be the doubled amount fined according to paragraph 1 of this article and suspended his/her
examination for 2 (two) year or perpetually removed from the examination lists. For person who replace or fraud of all forms in examination shall be penalty of criminal law.
Article 50: Offences Related to Exam Process
All activities of education personnel violate during exam process as notify in
article 26 in this law shall be interim fines from 2,000,000.00(two million) riels to 10,000,000.00(ten million) riels. For Civil servants shall be subject to first level of disciplinary administrative punishment. In case of recidivous violation, the amount of the fine shall be double the amount fined according to paragraph 1 of this article above. Civil servants additionally shall be subject to second level of disciplinary administrative punishment. For private educational personnel shall be subject to existing law. Article 50: Violation of the provision on freedom of religion in education All activities impact on freedom of religion in education, violate article 33 of this law shall be subject to fines from 100,000.00 (a hundred thousand) riels to 2,000,000.00 (two million) riels and the penal to put in prison from 1(one) month to 1(one) year.
Article 52: Violation of neutrality of educational institutions and Establishment
All political activities or propagandizing for any political party in educational
institutions or establishments violated article 34 of this law shall subject to interim fines in cash from 1,000,000.00(one million) riels to 5,000,000.00(five million) riels. In case of recidivous violation, the amount of the fine shall be double the amount fined according to paragraph 1 of this article above. For legal entity, shall be subject to interim fines from 10,000,000.00 (ten million) riels to 20,000,000.00 (twenty million) riels. In case of recidivous violation, the penalty shall be the doubled amount of paragraph 3 of this article. If the actor is legal entity who is educational institute or establishment, act as the first paragraph of this article and in case of recidivous violation, the educational license(s) shall be suspended or definitively cancelled.
Article 53: The illegal advertisement and propagandizing of education information
All advertisement and propagandizing of education information activities without permission or fraud of any kinds violate the provision of article 42 of this law shall be subject to interim fines from 2,000,000.00 (two million) riels to 10,000,000.00 (ten million) riels. In case of recidivous violation, the penalty shall be the double amount of the fines according to paragraph 1 of this article. Legal entity, who is educational institution or establishment, the educational license(s) shall be suspended or definitely cancelled.
Article 54: Transitionnel Provision
After this law comes into forces, the educational establishments and educational inst itutions that are permanently operating with violations of this law, shall prepare the necessary documents on adjustments for the Ministry in charge of Education within a period of 2 (two years).
Article 55: Abrogation
Any provision contrary to this law shall be abrogated.
Phnom Penh, December 08, 2007
In the name and pursuant the speech of the King Interim Chef of State
Signature and stamp
Samdech Akak Mohatormapoutisal CHEA SIM
Having informed the King
Ask for the signature of the King
Samdech Akak Mohasena Badey Tejou HUN SEN
Having informed Samdech Akas Mohasena Badey Tejou HUN SEN
Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Cambodia
Senior Minister, Minister of Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport
ANNEX TO THE LAW ON EDUCATION APPROVED ON …
Duty: refers to the tasks assigned in accordance with the law.
Ministry in charge of Education: Refers to any public institution, which is
responsible for the education sector and although this institution is responsible for other tasks. The use of the term “Ministry in charge of Education” is to pinpoint an institution, which is responsible for educational affaires, which can normally be changed according to the mandate of the Royal Government.
Obligation: Refers to legal tie to be fulfilled compulsorily.
Formal education: Refers to processes of an education, which is systematic and proper in structure and hierarchy. Formal education is provided by educational institutions with appropriate educational licenses or educational accreditation in accordance with the legal criteria and procedures stipulated in this law.
Non-formal education: Refers to educational activities, which are systematically prepared and conducted outside of the framework of formal education programs to offer a number of selected studies. Non-formal education covers a wide range of education programs such as literacy, life and professional skills and basic education for learners who do not attend schools delivering formal education. Non-formal education consists of continuous and equivalent studies that are integrating into formal education or life-long education. Learners in non formal education have the right to request to be assessed and to take tests for assessing the equivalent levels of their education by education authorities as stipulated in this law.
Education for all (EFA): Refers to the global movement for children, adolescents and mature persons to get benefit from complete and qualitative education.
Qualitative education: Refers to a type of education, which fulfills the needs for basic and continuing education for the whole lives of the learners. Refers to a set of knowledge prepared for learners to achieve knowledge, life skills, moralities and capacities for continuing education for the entirety of learners’ lives in accordance with the provisions of this law.
Educational Program: Refers to a set of knowledge prepared for learners to
achieve knowledge, life skills, moralities and capacities for continuing education
for the entirety of learners’ lives in accordance with this law.
Fundamental educational program: Refers to educational programs set by the competent educational authorities for educational institutions to implement
Special education: Refers to education and training for any person who have
special needs such as disabled and outstanding learners.
Cheating in education: Refers to offering and taking bribe, frauds in education processes such as selling/buying of diplomas, certificates, any national examinations or equivalency tests or any stand-in examination.
Educational Establishment: Refers to centers for study and training considering from the primary education to higher education, even if any kind of schools, institutes, universities, or centers of technical and vocational education and training of all levels.
Higher educational establishment: Refers to centers for education and study, which provided the specialized education and training levels after general
education (secondary education).
Life-skills: Refers to knowledge emphasizing health, protection, prevention, food provisioning, understanding of the public and environment, society and
communication of the learners.
Educational personnel: Refers to civil servants are serving in the education
sector and have undergone pedagogical training recognized by the Ministry in
charge of Education and professors in higher educational institutions. The educational personnel comprises of teaching and non-teaching personnel, within
or outside the civil servant cadre or personnel serving in the private education sector at all levels, except for political appointees who are leading the education
sector of public institutions.
International language: Refers to any foreign language used widely in the
Institute: Refers to higher educational institutions offering study courses one or many subjects.
Public educational establishment: Refers to educational establishments managed by public educational authorities or state agents or boards of education or schools council , with the majority of their members appointed by public
authorities or elected by the public votes.
Private educational establishment : Refers to educational establishments
managed by private individuals or by private boards or private school council.
University: Refers to missions of higher educational institutions providing human resource training and education following the level of the bachelor degree. A University comprises of several dependent faculties and, necessarily at least three, that are higher education programs in demography and linguistics, social sciences, arts, and other 2 (two) educational programs as a minimum.
Beneficiaries of education certificate: Refers to persons who are entitled to
beneficial interests based on education certificates through transfer of rights, sale or inheritance.
Educational institutions: Refers to institutions whose sole purpose is to provide educational services. The educational institutions include public and private ones.
Public educational institutions: Refers to educational institutions organized by the public educational authorities, ministries or state institutions.
Private educational institutions: Refers to educational institutions administrated by private individuals, associations or non-governmental organizations.
National Education Standard: refer to the minimum characteristic to evaluate the level of educational system.
National training standard: refer to the minimum characteristic to evaluate the level of technical and vocational education and training.
National capacity standard: refer to the minimum characteristic to evaluate the capacity of learners obtained from the technical and vocational education and training.
Educational license: Refers to permission letters issued by the public educational authorities to provide rights to natural persons or legal entity that are managers or owners of educational institutions to operate educational activities in accordance with the existing law.
Educational license holder: Refers to individual persons who get the permission, to operate educational activities, issued by the competent authorities in accordance with the procedure of existing law.
Disabled learner: Refers to disabled learners who are obtained of facilitation for their education.
Disabled learners are learners who are: disabled with either one or two of their legs, deaf, mute or blind in both of their eyes, or have mental disabilities.
Scholarship: Refers to financial provided to learners for supporting their studies during the period of learning.
Subsidy: Refers to financial means granted to learners supporting a part of their
difficulties to pay for their livelihood during the period of learning.
Study credit: Refers to credits, which the state allows for lending to learners, to
cover a part of difficulties to pay during the period of learning and these credits
shall have been paid back to the state by specific period set.