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Home » Law on Nature Protection Area (Protected Areas Law)_080104_080104

Law on Nature Protection Area (Protected Areas Law)_080104_080104

Published: 2011 Sep 19

KINGDOM OF CAMBODIA
Nation – Religion – King

PROTECTED AREAS LAW

February 2008

Content

Page

Royal Decree   :   No NS/RKM//0208/007 Dated on 15 February 2008                                3

CHAPTER I     :   GENERAL PROVISIONS                               3

CHAPTER II     :   RESPONSIBLE INSTITUTIONS                     3

CHAPTER III     :   ESTABLISHMENT AND MODIFICATION OF PROTECTED AREAS   4

CHAPTER IV   :   ZONING                           5

CHAPTER V    :   NATIONAL STRATEGIC AND ACTIVE PLAN FOR PROTECTED
AREA MANAGEMENT                                6

CHAPTER VI   :   INVOLVEMENT AND ACCESS RIGHTS OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES
AND INDIGENOUS ETHNIC MINORITY COMMUNITIES                   8

CHAPTER VII  :  EDUCATION, DISSEMINATION, REHABILITATION, IMPROVEMENT
AND FUNDING OF PROTECTED AREAS                                            9

CHAPTER VIII :  PERMIT AND PROHIBITION AND ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL
IMPACTS ASSESSMENT                                                                    10

CHAPTER IX   :  LAW ENFORCEMENT AND PROCEDURES TO RESOLVE
OFFENCES                                                                                          12

CHAPTER X    :  NATURAL RESOURCE OFFENSES AND PENALTIES                      13

CHAPTER XI    :  FINAL PROVISIONS                       17

ANNEXES        :  LEXICON                         18

 

CHAPTER I

GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 1:
This law defines the framework of management, conservation and development of protected areas.
The  objectives  of  this  law  are  to  ensure  the  management,  conservation  of  biodiversity,  and
sustainable use of natural resources in protected areas.

Article 2:
This Law has a  scope of  application  in protected  areas defined by  the provisions of  the Law on
Environmental  Protection  and Natural Resources Management, which was  promulgated  by  Preah Reach
Kram (Royal Decree) No NS/RKM/1296/36 of December 24, 1996, Royal Decree (Preah Reach Kret) on the
Establishment  and  Designation  of  Protected  Areas  of  November  01,  1993,  Royal  Decree  on  the
Establishment and Management of Boeung Tonle Sap Biosphere reserve No NS/RKT/0401/070 of April 10,
2001, and other relevant standard documents.

Article 3:
For the purposes of this law, the terminology and vocabulary listed  in this law shall be defined as
provided in the appendix.

CHAPTER II

RESPONSIBLE INSTITUTIONS

Article 4:
The  management  of  protected  areas  as  mentioned  in  Article  2  of  this  law  shall  be  under  the
jurisdiction of the Ministry of Environment.
The Ministry of Environment has the “Nature Protection and Conservation Administration” (NPCA)
as  its own  secretariat  to manage  the protected  areas pursuant  to  the policy  of  the Royal Government  of
Cambodia.
The organization and functioning of the Nature Protection and Conservation Administration in each
protected area shall be determined by Prakas (Declaration) of the Ministry of Environment.
The management of the protected area shall have to guarantee the rights of the local communities,
indigenous  ethnic  minorities  and  the  public  to  participate  in  the  decision-making  on  the  sustainable
management and conservation of biodiversity.

Article 5:
The Nature Protection and Conservation Administration shall have the following main duties:
1. Develop strategic plans, action plans, and technical guidelines for managing the protected areas.
2.  Make proposals for the establishment and modification of any protected area as required by the
Royal Government of Cambodia or pursuant to regional and international conventions, protocols
and agreements.
3.  Prepare guidelines and procedures for effective enforcement of this Law
4. Take action to investigate, control, and crackdown on natural resource offences in the protected
areas and file complaint to court.
5.    Promote  education  and  dissemination  to  the  public  to  participate  in  the  conservation  and
protection of natural resources within the protected areas.
6.  Formulate agreements on community protected area development programmes.

Article 6:
Officials of  the Nature Protection and Conservation Administration have  the following rights and
duties:
1.  Regularly  patrol,  control  and  crack  down  on  national  resource  offences  of  all  kinds  in  the
protected areas.
2. Inspect licenses, permits, and other relevant documents determined by this law.
3. Take action against forest fires in protected areas.
4. Control  export and  import of wild  flora and  fauna,  seeds  and  samples  from/into  the protected
areas.
5.  Promote  education  and  dissemination  among  the  public  and  coordinate with  local  indigenous
communities to participate in the preparation and implementation of community protected areas.
Detailed  rights  and  duties  of  natural  protection  and  conservation  agency’s  officials  shall  be
determined by Prakas of the Ministry of Environment.

CHAPTER III

ESTABLISHMENT AND MODIFICATION OF PROTECTED AREAS

Article 7:
Protected areas are categorized as follows:
1. National Park
2. Wildlife sanctuary
3. Protected landscape
4. Multiple use area
5. Ramsar site
6. Biosphere reserve
7. Natural heritage site
8. Marine park

The protected areas above shall be defined by a sub-decree.

Article 8:
The  establishment or modification of any protected area  shall be based on  the  results of  research
studies, criteria, management objectives, and access rights  to resource uses,  land  titles, and other relevant
aspects.
The proposal for establishing or modifying a protected area shall consist of:
1. A description of significance of the area(s) proposed for establishment or modification in terms of
biological, topographical, geological, historical, cultural, and conservation values.
2.  A  legal  description  of  the  area(s)  proposed  for  establishment  or modification,  attached  with
appropriate scaled and clear maps indicating its location, boundaries, and size.
3. Management  objectives of  the  area(s) proposed  for  establishment or modification  and  current
threats.
4. Assessment report of natural resources and land use in the proposed area(s).
5.  Results  from  consultations  with  relevant  agencies,  stakeholders,  and  local  authority
representatives  situated  within  or  adjacent  to  the  proposed  area(s)  for  establishment  or
modification.

An establishment or modification of a protected area shall be determined by a sub-decree.

Article 9:
The Royal Government of Cambodia may establish and modify any protected area of national and
international  significance  so as  to be designated as world or  regional heritage  site provided  that  the area
responds to criteria set forth by such international or regional conventions, protocols, and agreements.
A  protected  area  already  designated  as world  or  regional  heritage  site  shall  require  appropriate
interventions by the Royal Government of Cambodia to ensure its management and conservation consistent
with procedures and relevant regulations prescribed in such instruments.
A  protected  area  which  has  already  been  acknowledged  by  international  or  regional  treaty,
convention, protocol, and agreement shall be determined by a sub-decree.

Article 10:
The Royal Government of Cambodia may establish provincial/municipal protected areas.
The establishment of provincial/municipal protected areas shall be determined by Sub-decree.

CHAPTER IV

ZONING

Article 11:
Each protected area shall be divided into four (4) management zoning systems as the following:
1. Core zone: management area(s) of high conservation values containing threatened and critically
endangered species, and fragile ecosystems.
Access  to  the zone  is prohibited  except  the Nature Conservation and Protection Administration’s
officials  and  researchers who, with prior permission  from  the Ministry of Environment,  conduct
nature and scientific studies for the purpose of preservation and protection of biological resources
and natural environment with the exception of national security and defense sectors.
2. Conservation zone: management area(s) of high conservation values containing natural resources,
ecosystems, watershed areas, and natural landscape located adjacent to the core zone.
Access  to  the zone  is allowed only with prior consent of  the Nature Conservation and Protection
Administration at the area with the exception of national security and defense sectors.
Small-scale  community  uses  of  non-timber  forest  products  (NTFPs)  to  support  local  ethnic
minorities’ livelihood may be allowed under strict control, provided that they do not present serious
adverse impacts on biodiversity within the zone.
3.  Sustainable  use  zone:  management  area(s)  of  high  economic  values  for  national  economic
development and management, and conservation of the protected area(s) itself thus contributing to
the local community, and indigenous ethnic minorities’ livelihood improvement.
After consulting with relevant ministries and institutions, local authorities, and local communities in
accordance with  relevant  laws  and procedures,  the Royal Government  of Cambodia may permit
development and investment activities in this zone in accordance with the request from the Ministry
of Environment.
4. Community zone: management area(s) for socio-economic development of  the  local communities
and  indigenous ethnic minorities and may contain existing residential  lands, paddy field and field
garden or swidden (Chamkar).

Issuing land title or permission to use land in this zone shall have prior agreement from the Ministry
of Environment in accordance with the Land Law.
This management area does not cover  the Apsara authorities and other authorities designated and
management area(s) to which the Royal Government has allocated the tasks.

Article 12:
The zoning as stated in Article 11 above shall be based on the following criteria:
– The area management objectives
– Potential values of the natural resources of the area
– Socio-economic and cultural implications of the area
– Carrying capacity of the natural resources of the area
– Geographical location of the area.
The principles for zoning in any protected area shall be prescribed by Prakas issued by the Ministry
of Environment.

Article 13:
Modification of the boundaries of each zoning system as provided in Article 11 of this law could be
done based on:
–  Clear  scientific  information  on  ecosystem,  including  animal  species,  plants  species,  genetic,
biodiversity
resources, socio-economic and cultural aspects which are being changed and threatened.
– Compliance with the policies and strategies of the Royal Government of Cambodia.

Article 14:
The Ministry of Environment shall formalize the map for each protected area on an appropriate scale
map and with the participation of the Ministry of Land Management, Urban Planning and Construction, local
authority, local communities and relevant agencies.
The Nature Protection  and Conservation Administration  shall  conduct  research  and management
zoning as stated in article 11 of this law  in accordance with the Ministry of Environment’s guidelines and
demarcated  the  boundary markers  for  each  protected  area  based  on  an  appropriate  location  on  the map
determined by sub-decree.

CHAPTER V

NATIONAL STRATEGIC AND ACTIVE PLAN
FOR PROTECTED AREAS MANAGEMENT

Article 15:
The Ministry of Environment shall develop a National Protected Area Strategic Management Plan
(NPASMP) and ensure that the Plan  is compatible and consistent with national plans such as the National
Environment Action Plan, National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan and the National Wetland Action
Plan. The NPASMP should be adopted by the Royal Government of Cambodia at the request of the Ministry
of Environment.

Article 16:
The National Protected Area Strategic Management Plan shall include, inter alia, the following:
1. Objectives  of  the  conservation,  rehabilitation, prevention,  suppression  of  illegal  activities  and
sustainable use of natural resources and ecosystem within individual protected area;
2. Current  status of natural resources and ecosystems within  each zone  including  flora and  fauna
species, genetic resources and socio-cultural aspects;
3. Assessment of potential level of contribution of each protected area to achieving biodiversity and
natural resources protection and conservation;
4. Recommended actions for successful achievement of the protected area objectives; and steps for
implementation of management plan for priority protected areas.

Article 17:
The Ministry of Environment shall make proposals for review and revision of the NPASMP at least
once in every five years. The NPASMP may be revised, as necessary, to reflect the following:
1. Improved scientific information about and understanding of Cambodia’s living resources and
ecosystems,  including  communities  of  species  of  flora  and  fauna,  biological  and  genetic
diversity, and socio-cultural resources;
2. Threat to the National Protected Area System; and
3. Implementation in accordance with the Royal Government policies

The NPASMP shall be prepared and revised through a process involving public consultation, notice,
and comments.

Article 18:
The Nature Protection and Conservation Administration shall develop for individual protected area
an action plan to be approved by the Ministry of Environment and in accordance with the NPASMP.
Process  for  the  development  of  the  Plan  shall  involve  coordination  and  consultations with  local
authority, local community, indigenous ethnic minorities’ community and stakeholders.

Article 19:
The Ministry of Environment shall issue Prakas prescribing guidelines for a standardized process for
the development of action plan for individual protected area. The content for each of the Plan shall include
the following:
1.  The objectives of the protected area management;
2.  A detailed description of the activities allowed within each zone and accompanied by zoning
category;
3.   A description of  the  available  natural  resources,  their uses  and  land use  status within  the
protected area;
4.   A  description  of  prohibited  activities  that  run  counter  to  the  protected  area management
objectives;
5.   A model  of  agreement  on  participatory  protected  area management  process  between  the
Administration and the protected area community and with natural person or legal entity;
6.    The  action  plan  and  interventions  required  for  forest  fire  management,  protection  and
conservation of wildlife and their associated habitats;
7.   A plan for the management of, for example, the protected area community and eco-tourism
development programme;
8.   An assessment of budget requirements and sources of funding;
9.   A description of the name, role and structure of the protected area.

Article 20:
A National Committee for Conflict Resolution on Protected Area Management (NCRPAM), chaired
by the Minister of Environment and participated by relevant ministries and institutions as members, shall be
established to assist in the discussion, consultation and conflict resolution on the protected area.

CHAPTER VI

INVOLVEMENT AND ACCESS RIGHTS OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES
AND INDIGENOUS ETHNIC MINORITY COMMUNITIES

Article 21:
Local  communities,  indigenous  ethnic  minority  communities,  the  public  and  civil  society  are
encouraged to participate fully in the provision of and access to  information relevant to the protected area
management, conservation and development.

Article 22:
The State recognizes and secures access to traditional uses, local customs, beliefs, and religions of
the local communities, and indigenous ethnic minority groups residing within and adjacent to the protected
areas.
Access  to  traditional  uses  of  natural  resources  and  customary  practices  of  local  community  and
indigenous  ethnic  minority  groups  on  family  scale  may  be  allowed  within  sustainable  use  zone  and
conservation  zone  following  guidelines  which  shall  be  prescribed  in  the  Prakas  of  the  Ministry  of
Environment.

Article 23:
Utilization of natural resources in accordance with articles of this law may only be allowed  in the
sustainable use zone of the areas designated as community protected area.
Utilization  of  natural  resources  shall  be  in  accordance with  the Management  Plan  and  technical
guidelines to ensure sustainability of natural resources within the community protected areas.

Article 24:
Swidden  agriculture  practices  shall  not  be  permitted  in  core  zone  and  conservative  zone  in  the
protected areas.

Article 25:
The Ministry of Environment has  the authority  to allocate part or parts of sustainable use zone  to
communities residing within or adjacent to a protected area as the community protected area.
The  concerned  community  protected  area  shall  enter  into  an  agreement  with  the  Nature
Conservation  and Protection Administration  and  the  agreement  shall be valid  for  a period not  exceeding
fifteen (15) years.
If  the  community  protected  area  fails  to  abide  strictly  by  the  agreement  with  the  Nature
Conservation and Protection Administration and management plan, the Nature Conservation and Protection
Administration  has  the  rights  to  temporarily  stop  for  review  and  assessment  of  the  operation  of  the
community protected area.
The  Ministry  of  Environment  has  the  authority  to  revoke  the  agreement  with  the  community
protected area in case the community acts in contravention of the terms of the agreement and management
plan.
Guidelines on the procedures and process of establishment of the community protected area shall be
determined by Prakas of the Ministry of Environment.

Article 26:
Local  communities  and  indigenous  ethnic  minorities may  not  have  the  rights  to  clear  or  work
forestlands in the community protected areas allocated to it, pursuant to the agreements with the Ministry of
Environment, to practice agricultural farming or to claim title over the land, or to sell, lease, pawn, donate,
share, divide or transfer the areas under its own management to any person or legal entity.
Community  protected  area  regulations  shall  be  established  by  local  community  and  indigenous
ethnic minorities acknowledged by local authority and endorsed by the Nature Conservation and Protection
Administration of the Ministry of Environment.
Allocation  of  more  farmlands  to  local  community  and  indigenous  ethnic  minorities  shall  be
determined by a sub-decree.

Article 27:
The Nature Conservation and Protection Administration, upon consultation and coordination with
local authority, local community and indigenous ethnic minorities is duty-bound to conduct feasibility study
on the establishment of community protected areas and to define clear location and appropriate size.
National  and  International  Non-governmental  Organizations  (NGOs)  and  civil  societies  are
encouraged  to provide assistance and coordination for  the establishment and  implementation process of a
community protected area.

Article 28:
The  community  protected  area  shall  develop,  with  recognition  of  the  local  authority,  a  natural
resources  management  plan  which  shall  be  reviewed  and  approved  by  the  Nature  Conservation  and
Protection Administration. The Plan shall be reviewed regularly every three (3) years or earlier if necessary.
The  Plan  and  the  community  protected  area  development  activities  shall  be  integrated  into  the
commune development plan.

CHAPTER VII

EDUCATION, DISSEMINATION, REHABILITATION,
IMPROVEMENT AND FUNDING OF PROTECTED AREAS

Article 29:
Citizens, Buddhist monks, school children, civil servants, members of the armed forces, and  local
authorities shall have an obligation to participate in the protection, conservation and rehabilitation of natural
resources within the protected areas.

Article 30:
Extensive programmes  for education and dissemination,  involving all means of communications,
shall be developed for individual protected area on the protection and conservation of natural resources, the
rehabilitation and restoration of biodiversity and degraded and lost ecosystems.
The Ministry of Environment  shall, every year on  the National and World Environment Day and
other national and international convention days, organize activities for rehabilitation of biological resources
and ecosystems within the protected area with a view to providing public education and awareness on the
value of protected area and promoting participatory protection and conservation of natural resources.

Article 31:
The Ministry  of  Environment  shall,  in  collaboration  with  local  communities,  indigenous  ethnic
minorities, national and international organizations and NGOs, rehabilitate and restore the environment in
degraded areas within the protected area.

Article 32:
The Government shall establish a fund called “protected areas fund” which is organized, managed
and  given  responsibility  by  a  protected  area  committee  with Minister  of  Environment  and Minister  of
Economy and Finance as co-chairmen.
The establishment and functioning of the committee shall be determined by a Sub-decree.

Article 33:
Funding  support  for  rehabilitation,  improvement  of  protected  areas  and  biodiversity  shall  come
from:
1. National budget
2. Protected area entrance and other service fees
3. Environmental endowment insurance
4. Donations
5. Assistance from national and international organizations and friendly countries
6. Assistance from international environment funds

Article 34:
Budget  and  funds  from  sources  as  stated  in  article  33  of  this  law  may  be  used  to  support  the
following activities within the protected areas:
•  The protection and conservation of biological resources and ecosystems;
•  Rehabilitation and enhancement of biodiversity and ecosystems;
•  Technical and scientific research study on the biological diversity and ecosystem;
•  Maintenance and extension of eco-tourism services
•  Training, human resource development and capacity building of the Nature Conservation and
Protection                               Administration staff for effective protection and conservation of
biodiversity and
ecosystems;
•  Programmes supporting the establishment of community protected area;
•  Dissemination and education on protected area; and
•  Construction, rehabilitation and maintenance of infrastructure.

CHAPTER VIII

PERMIT AND PROHIBITION AND ENVIRONMENTAL
AND SOCIAL IMPACTS ASSESSMENT

Article 35:
The Minister of Environment has the authority to issue permit, agreement or contract for non-profit
purpose in term of conservation and management of natural resources in the protected areas.
Request procedures and formalities to get permits and agreement or contract for non-profit purpose
in  term of  conservation  and management of natural  resources  in  the protected  areas  shall be  defined by
Prakas of the Ministry of Environment.

Article 36:
All clearances and bulldozing within the open land or forestland in protected areas for the purposes
of building all types of public infrastructures through the core zone and conservation zone shall be strictly
prohibited.
These  activities  can  only  be  carried  out  in  the  sustainable  use  zone  and  community  zone  with
approval from the Royal Government of Cambodia at the request of the Ministry of Environment.

Article 37:
To establish bases, transfer of bases location or temporary strategic bases of the armed forces in the
protected areas, the Ministry of Environment and  institutions managing the armed forces shall collaborate
and conduct feasibility studies in order to submit the proposal to the Royal Government for approval.
The armed forces’ bases in the protected areas that have been mobilized or moved to other locations
shall be handed over to the Ministry of Environment.
Military exercise,  training, and  camping  in  the  core zone and conservation zone of  the protected
areas are  strictly prohibited, except  for national  security and national defense needs. These activities can
only be  carried out  in  the  sustainable use  zone  and  community  zone with  approval  from  the Ministry of
Environment.

Article 38:
All actions of taking out of or into protected areas plant seeds, and cross-breeding of wild species or
fish of all species shall be subject  to researches, diagnosis and evaluation by and shall receive permission
from  the  Nature  Conservation  and  Protection  Administration  and  with  approval  from  the  Ministry  of
Environment.

Article 39:
All  non-commercial  export,  import  or  exchange  between  the  Kingdom  of  Cambodia  and  other
countries of animal and plant species, plant seeds, cross-breeding of wildlife, and fish species and specimen
of  species  endemic  to  the  protected  area  shall  be  subject  to  comprehensive  researches,  diagnosis  and
evaluation by the Nature Conservation and Protection Administration and with approval from the Ministry
of Environment.

Article 40:
Setting forest fire in the protected areas is prohibited. The use of fire may be allowed for the Nature
Protection and Conservation Administration, for arboriculture, fire road and forest sanitation.
Citizens, armed forces, and authorities of all levels have the obligation to participate in collaborating
to conserve and prevent the forest and control the forest fire.

Article 41:
Each protected area shall be protected against destructive practices or harms caused by illegal land
claim, collection, commercialization, pollution  in  the areas containing valuable biological resource, forest
fire, swidden agriculture, transmission of diseases and pests including invasive plants and animals.
Prohibited practices considered destructive and harmful include:
1.  Displacement, removal or destruction of protected area boundary markers or posts.
2.  Collection of timber and non-timber products ( NTFPs), fishery products and natural
resources in a   manner violating the recognized and authorized access rights.
3.  Felling, pruning, clearing or poisoning plants, or uprooting tree stumps.
4.  Catching, hunting, collecting wild eggs, offsprings and birds by all means.
5.  Destroying water quality in all forms, poisoning, using chemical substances, disposing
of solid and liquid wastes into water or on land, using electric shock equipment.
6.  Stocking, buying and selling wild animals and samples of all kinds .
7.  Destroying natural grassland, plants and wildlife habitats.
8.  Releasing cattle and livestock and walking hunting dogs.
9.  Illegal fishing practice harmful to natural resources, both marine and freshwater,
flooded forests, mangroves, corals and seaweeds.
10.   Establishment of bases for processing Khlem Chan (Aquilaria crassna), Mreah Prov
(Ocimum sanctum), Vor Romeat (Teramnus labialis) or other NTFPs and freshwater
and marine aquaculture that may cause pollution or destructive effects to the biota and
ecosystem.

Article 42:
Processing  natural  resources  products  and  by-products,  and  fisheries,  establishing  and  operating
sawmill bases for wood processing, timber process plants, shops to process natural resources products and
by-products, fisheries and all kinds of kilns in the protected areas are strictly prohibited.

Article 43:
No  physical  person  or  legal  entity  may  have  authority  to  issue  permission,  either  directly  or
indirectly, to fell trees, clear forestlands, poison, electrocution, hunt or trap for any species of animals or to
undertake activities  to collect NTFPs, wildlife,  to  take  land or components of natural  resources  into  their
ownership within a protected area, which contravene the provisions of this Law.

Article 44:
To minimize  adverse  impacts  on  the  environment  and  to  ensure  that management  objectives  of
protected  areas  are  satisfied,  an  Environmental  and  Social  Impact  Assessment  shall  be  required  on  all
proposals and investment for development within or adjacent to protected area boundary by the Ministry of
Environment with the collaboration from relevant ministries and institutions.
The procedures for Environmental and Social Impact Assessment for any projects or activities shall
comply with provisions pertaining to the process of Environmental and Social Impact Assessment.

CHAPTER IX

LAW ENFORCEMENT
AND PROCEDURES TO RESOLVE OFFENCES

Article 45:
Natural resource offences are criminal offences that are specially defined as mentioned in this law.
Officials of the Nature Protection and Conservation Administration having duties as judicial police
officers shall have authority to investigate, prevent, and crack down on natural resource offences within their
assigned territory and file such case with the court.
Operations  by  the  Nature  Protection  and  Conservation  Administration  officials  who  are
commissioned  as  justice  police  officials  shall  be  carried  out  in  accordance  with  the  law  on  criminal
procedures of the Kingdom of Cambodia.

After  a  court  decision  or  judgment  is  made,  any  confiscated  evidence  shall  be  managed  in
accordance with the procedures of the Nature Conservation and Protection Administration of the Ministry of
Environment.

Article 46:
Local  authorities,  armed  forces,  other  concerned  institutions,  and  the  public  shall  facilitate  the   13
process of providing  information,  and  assist  in  the  investigation, prevention,  and  suppression, of natural
resource offences, or in the temporary custody of any seized evidence so that it can be made available at the
request of the Nature Protection and Conservation Administration officials.
Officials  of  the  Nature  Protection  and  Conservation  Administration,  in  cooperation  with  local
authorities,  for  the  purposes  of  making  the  management  and  conservation  of  natural  resources  highly
effective, shall take prompt action to  investigate any case of offences upon complaint or report on natural
resource offences in the protected area.

Article 47:
When  conducting  the  prevention  of  and  crackdown  on  natural  resources  offences  within  their
responsible territory and when in court session, the NCPA officer shall wear appropriate uniform, insignia
and hierarchical ranking badge.

Article 48:
Officials of the Nature Protection and Conservation Administration, in their role as judicial police,
shall have the authority to use weapons and authority to self-defense against physical violence by offenders
while performing their mission. The weapons shall be handled and managed by the Ministry of Interior.

Article 49:
The filing of offences inside protected areas shall be in accordance with the Criminal Procedures in
force.
The Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Justice shall make a joint Prakas on the procedures
for recording offences within a protected area.

Article 50:
Evidence of natural resources offences inside the protected area shall be defined as follows:
1.  Natural  resources  products  and  by-products  that  are  the  actual  evidence  of  illegal
activities.
2.  Equipment and means of transport used for committing illegal activities.

Evidence as stated in the first sentence above shall be temporarily seized until the cases are resolved
by the court whether by transaction fines or by the court decision.
During  the  illegal  transportation of natural  resources products  and by-products  the driver of  that
means of transport without its owner present shall be temporarily detained to assist in the  investigation of
offenders and their accomplices.

With  appropriate  recording,  the  Nature  Conservation  and  Protection  Administration  has  the
authority to release or destroy or keep for the public benefit the natural resources products and by-products
seized which are easily spoilt.

Article 51:
Officials of  the Nature Conservation and Protection Administration on duty have  the authority  to
temporarily  stop  all  or  part  of  a  person  activity  that  has  offended  against  the  provisions  of  this  law  or
breached the agreement until the case is resolved.

Article 52:
Any  person  who  disagrees  with  the  decision  made  by  the  Nature  Conservation  and  Protection
Administration as outlined in this law, except transaction fines as stated in article 52, 56, and 57, shall have
the  rights  to  make  a  written  complaint  to  the  Head  of  the  central  Nature  Conservation  and  Protection
Administration within at most thirty (30) days as of the date a decision by the local Nature Conservation and
Protection Administration or the court is received.
The Head of the central Nature Conservation and Protection Administration shall make decisions on
this complaint within at most thirty (30) days as of the date the complaint is received.
If  upon  the  complaint,  a  decision  made  by  the  Head  of  the  central  Nature  Conservation  and
Protection Administration is still not acceptable by the plaintiff, he/she can file a complaint to court within
thirty (30) days at most.
Any  complaint made  under  this  Article  shall  not  affect  the  authority  of,  or  stay  the  process  of
enforcement by the Nature Conservation and Protection Administrative officers under this Law.

CHAPTER X

NATURAL RESOURCE OFFENSES AND PENALTIES

Article 53:
Punishments  for natural  resource offences within protected  areas  include  imprisonment,  fines by
court  procedures,  transaction  fines,  confiscation  of  evidence,  payment  of  restoration  damages, warning,
termination or suspension of agreements or permits.
Decisions to suspend or terminate agreements or permits shall be the responsibility of the Minister
of Environment.
Decisions to impose transaction fines, to pay restoration damages and to issue warnings shall be the
responsibility of the Nature Conservation and Protection Administration.
If  the offender  refuses  to pay  the  fines or restoration damages,  then  the Nature Conservation and
Protection Administration may file a court proceeding on the offence.
Confiscation of equipment whether by the Nature Conservation and Protection Administration or by
the court depend on each case determined by this law.

Article 54:
The transaction fine is applied when the offender has confessed and agreed to pay the fines pursuant
to the provisions of this Law, and it shall be paid no later than fifteen (15) days from the date of the notice of
the fines by the Nature Protection and Conservation Administration.
The procedures and rights to decide on transaction fines shall be defined by Prakas of the Ministry of
Environment.
In fixing the amount of transaction fines, the following factors shall be considered:
1.  the  economic  value  of  the  biodiversity  translated  as gain,  realized  as  a  result  of  the
offence;
2.  the damage caused to the natural resources and environment;
3.  conduct of offences in each management zone
4.  how often the person charged has committed the offence;
5.  how much of a fine required to deter future offences from occurring; and
6.  whether the offence was intentional.
7.  condition of the offender
If  the offender  refuses  to pay  the  fine or  restoration damages, within  the period  as  stated  in  this
article  then  the Nature Conservation  and  Protection  Administration may  file  a  court  proceeding  on  the
offence.

Article 55:
The  fines  imposed by court decision or  revenue  from  selling of evidence  shall go  to  the national
budget.
The Royal Government may  decide  to pay  reward  to  citizens  or officers who  had been  actively
participating in controlling natural resource offences within a particular protected area.

Article 56:
A  person  who  commits  offence  against  the  provisions  of  this  law  shall  receive  punishment  as
follows:
1. Natural resources offences of the first grade:
– Warning, payment of restoration damages, transaction fines, termination or suspension of
agreements or permits.
2. Natural resources offences of the second grade:
–  One (1) month to one (1) year’s imprisonment and/or fines from one and a half million
Riels (1,500,000) to fifteen million Riels (15, 000,000).
3. Natural resources offences of the third grade:
–   One (1) year to five (5) years’ imprisonment and/or fines from fifteen million Riels (15,
000,000) to one hundred and fifty million Riels (150,000,000).
4. Natural resources offences of the fourth grade:
–   Five (5) years to ten (10) years’ imprisonment plus fines from fifteen million Riels (15,
000,000) to one hundred and fifty million Riels (150,000,000). In case the offender is a legal entity
the fines shall be from one hundred and fifty million Riels(150,000,000) to two hundred and fifty
million Riels (250,000,000). All evidence shall be confiscated as State property.

Article 57:
A person who commits the following offences in protected areas shall receive a written warning as
punishment for natural resources offences of the first grade:
1- Graze cattle in the areas designated for biodiversity protection, except as stated in chapter
VI of this law
2- Bring in flammable materials, substances, and equipment that may cause forest fire;
3- Access into protected area for the purposes of natural and scientific study and making a
tour without permit;
4- Bring  in,  produce  or  process  equipment with  the  aim  of  committing  natural  resource
offences of all   kinds.
5- Bring  in  all  types  of  transport means  for  the  purposes  of  exploring  and  transporting
natural resources.

Article 58:
Offences of the following violations shall receive punishment by transaction fines from one hundred
thousand Riels (100,000) to one million Riels (1,000,000) on top of restoration damages; and all evidence of
the following offences in protected areas shall be confiscated as State property:
1.  Build or operate any burning kiln without permit.
2.  Import-export flora and fauna species, wild seeds of all kinds without permit.
3.  Bring in hunting dogs for hunting purpose.
4.  Cause forest fire.
5.  Catching, trapping, poaching, poisoning, collecting eggs, and offsprings of wildlife
6.  Bring in chainsaw and machinery into a protected area without permit.

A person who commits offences as specified  in  this article for a multiple  time shall be penalized
double the value of transaction fines and shall pay restoration damages.

Article 59:
Offences of the following violations shall receive punishment by transaction fines or pay restoration
damages and all evidence of the following offences committed in the protected areas shall be confiscated as
State property:
1.  Cut, uproot, fell, encroach and clear forest land, prune, strangle, collect, destroy natural
resources
2.  Cause injury or damage to plants and wildlife
3.  Collect and transport natural resources products and by-products without permit
4.  Stocking by-products of natural resources without permit
5.  Wildlife, and wildlife specimen trading, and raising
6.  Illegal fishing practice harmful to national resources, both marine and freshwater,
flooded forests, mangroves, corals and seaweeds.

A person who  commits offence  as  specified  in  this  article  for  a multiple  time  shall be penalized
double the value of transaction fines and shall pay restoration damages.

Article 60:
Those who shall be punished for natural resources offences of the second grade with evidence being
confiscated as State property are any persons who commit the following offences:
1.  Use all kinds of poisonous substances that can have adverse impacts to natural resources
2.  Causing forest fire by mistake;
3.  Destroy wildlife habitats, collect  eggs or chicks, disturb, cause  injury  to offspring of
regional flagship
4.  Wildlife species or migratory species for feeding, reproduction and nurturing;
5.  Destroy young trees planted in restored ecosystem;
6.  Operation of equipment that may disturb by noise, vibration. wave, and smoke;
7.  Hide, steal, sell, destroy or damage evidence of offences;
8.  Collect wild fruits by way of felling trees
9.  Destroy, change, remove, or damage signage of all kinds.
10. Build or  install boundary posts or markers,  fences, putting  signs  for  the purposes of
ownership

Multiple time offenders shall be penalized double the value of transaction fines.

Article 61:
Those who shall be punished for natural resources offences of the third grade with evidence being
confiscated as State property are any persons who commit the following offences:
1.  Displace, remove or destroy boundary markers and infrastructure for the management
of protected areas
2.  Establish bases for processing all kinds of natural resources products and by-products
3.  Establishment  of  bases  for  processing  Klem  Chan  (Aquilaria  crassna), Mreah  Prov
(Ocimum sanctum), Vor Romeat (Teramnus labialis), and other plants.
4.  Cut, prune, strangle, uproot, fell, collect, destroy, encroach and stock rare, vulnerable
and critically endangered plants species that are determined by Prakas of the Ministry of
Environment.
5.  Catch, trap, hunt, cause injury, poison, kill, take out, collect eggs and offsprings from
their original habitats of any vulnerable, rare, or critically endangered wildlife species
as specified in the Prakas by the Ministry of Environment.
6.  Using weapons,  explosives,  chemical  or  poisonous  substances,  any  equipment  using
electricity  as  a means  for  trapping  animals,  and  any  other  types of  illegal  gears  that
cause damage to natural resources.
7.  Cause  obstruction,  injury  or  interference  to  the Nature Conservation  and  Protection
Administration in performing its functions and duty effectively.
8.  Unauthorized  use  of  the  uniform,  insignia,  hierarchical  ranking  badge  of  the Nature
Conservation and Protection Administration official to commit offences.
9.  Falsify legal documents of relevant institutions to commit illegal activities.
10. Destroy boundary markers, bridges, water pipes, roads, buildings, stations, and public
infrastructures.
Multiple time offenders shall be penalized double the value of transaction fines.

Article 62:
Those who shall be punished for natural resources offences of the fourth grade with evidence being
confiscated as State property are any persons who commit the following offences:
1.  Fell  trees,  encroach  and  clear  forest  land,  set  forest  fire,  and bulldoze  forestlands  to
claim ownership.
2.  Cut, transport and process all kinds of luxurious quality hard wood and Black wood.
3.  Bring in, or introduce into, store or discharge any type of pollutant or hazardous waste
that can damage, or can cause damage to natural resources.
4.  Set forest fire intentionally
5.  Dig, move  the  soil,  bulldoze,  or  remove  soil,  stones,  pebbles  and minerals  without
permit
6.  Fill in soil on land or water area without permit
In case a legal entity violates one or more of the provisions below shall be fines from one hundred
and fifty million Riels (150,000,000)to two hundred and fifty million Riels (250,000,000).
Multiple times offenders shall be penalized double the value of transaction fines.

Article 63:
Any person who threaten and cause obstruction, injury or interference to Nature Conservation and
Protection Administration Official in performing his functions and duty effectively shall receive a term of
imprisonment between one (1) year to five ( 5) years and be fined from fifteen million Riels (15,000,000) to
one hundred and fifty million Riels (150,000,000).
Accomplice or collaborator shall receive the same punishment as the offender.

Article 64:
The Administration officer, an inspection or environment officer, for their negligence, carelessness
or failure to abide by the order of the MoE, shall face administrative punishment or shall be prosecuted.
The Administration officer, an inspection or environment officer, who conspires with the offender or
facilitate the offences, shall receive the same punishment as the offender.

CHAPTER XI

FINAL PROVISIONS

Article 65:
Any provisions counter to the articles of this Law shall be abrogated.

Article 66:
This Law shall be declared immediately effective upon signing.

This Law was passed by  the National Assembly of  the Kingdom of Cambodia on December 27,
2007 during the 7th
session of its 3rd
legislature.

Phnom Penh, January 4, 2008                                                                                                                               President


of the National Assembly
Signed and sealed
Samdech Akkeak Moha Ponhea Chakkrey HENG SAMRIN

ANNEXES

LEXICON
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Biodiversity  or  Biological  Resources:  Various  organisms  in  the  same  or  different  species  and  living
organisms  of  all  levels  and  sources,  including  land,  marine  and  fresh  water  ecosystems,  and  the
ecological relationships in which these ecosystems exist.
Protection and Conservation of Biological Resources: Protection and management of natural resources,
living and non-living, by means of ensuring their sustainability for maximum advantage for people at
present and in the future.
Rare Species: Species that is small in number, but not vulnerable to immediate extinction. Generally, these
species are seen among local/native species, in a particular habitat, or scattered in larger areas.
Endangered Species: Animals or plants that can come to extinction caused by environment changes either
by nature or human exploitation, loss of habitat, threat from other species, changes in the food chain,
pollution, or a combination of these factors.
Ecosystem: A set of mixed interactions in a particular area between  living organisms (plant, animal) with
the  surrounding  non-living  environment  (climate,  micro-climate,  land,  water)  which  create  the
institutionalization  of  environment  and  perform  certain  functions  on  the  earth’s  surface.  Humans
interact  with  the  earth’s  surface.  Humans  interact  with  economic  needs,  tradition,  culture,  and
environment, as well as a mixed part of the forest system.
Ecology: A  science  which  studies  the  relations  between  living  organisms  (animals  and  plants)  and  the
surrounding environment.
Core Zone: A zone of high value for conservation of rare, endangered, vulnerable and  threatened animal
and plant species and a delicate ecosystem.
– Entry  into  this  zone  is prohibited,  except by  authorized officials of  the Natural Protection  and
Conservation Administration.
– Scientific researchers conducting study of nature with  the purpose of protecting and conserving
natural resources, biodiversity and environment shall obtain advance permission from the Ministry
of Environment.

Conservation Zone: A zone next  to  the core zone, which  is of conservation value  for natural resources,
ecosystem, slope, and natural landscape. Entry into this zone shall be by obtaining advance permission
from  the Natural Protection and Conservation Administration on  site. Use of  forest by-products  for
livelihood by  the  local community and  indigenous  ethnic minorities, which  shall not cause harm  to
biodiversity, shall be under strict monitoring.
Sustainable Use Zone: A zone of high value  in national  economic development  that directly  serves  the
purpose  of  management  and  conservation  of  the  protected  area  and  contributes  to  promoting  the
standards of living of the local community and indigenous ethnic minorities.
The Sustainable Use Zone includes the following sites:
– National cultural and heritage
– Ecotourism

– Wildlife conservation and recreational services
– Biological rehabilitation
– Community protected area
– Botanic garden
–  Infrastructure  development,  including  irrigation,  reservoir,  hydro-electricity,    electric
networks
– Mining
– Environment-friendly resin exploitation in the protected area and surroundings.

Local Community Zone: A zone that serves the economic and social development of the local community
and indigenous ethnic minorities who already have on-going activities, including housing, farming and
vegetable gardening. Issuance of permit or land title or permission to use the land in this zone shall be
certified by the Ministry of Environment.
Community  Protected  Area:  Participation  of  local  community  or  indigenous  ethnic  minorities  in  an
elected  form  of  administrative  structure,  recognized  by  the  Natural  Prevention  and  Conservation
Administration, with  the  joint purpose of management and  sustainable use of natural resources  in a
particular part of the protected area, aimed at promoting the standards of living of the local community
and indigenous ethnic minorities.
Protected Area: An area of the State’s public properties in land or water territories, including coasts and sea,
located  in the area established by a Royal Decree or a new area established  in the jurisdiction of the
Ministry  of  Environment.  These  areas  are  of  physical  and  biological  importance  which  requires
management by  law with  the purpose of protecting and maintaining biological, natural and cultural
resources,  and  shall  be  sustainably  managed  in  every  generation  for  environmental,  social  and
economic benefits.
National Park: A natural area in land and/or water territories, which is established to:
a. Protect the area’s role or roles in the ecosystem for the benefits of people of all generations.
b. Limit the use that may harm or destroy biological resources, natural resources, cultural resources,
and functions/roles of the area in relation to the objectives of the established area.
c. Serve as bases for recreation, visits, education, research, and belief, provided that these activities
do not cause threats to the natural environment and local culture.

Wildlife  Sanctuary:  An  area  in  land  and/or  water  territories,  which  requires  active  interventions  for
management purposes to ensure maintenance of habitats and/or to meet necessary conditions for any
species of animals or plants.
Multiple-Use Area: An area in land and/or water territories, which is rich in natural resources that are intact
and  require  management  activities  to  ensure  long-term  protection  and  maintenance  of  biological
resources and ecosystem. In the meantime, it provides natural products and services for use to meet the
community needs.
Protected Landscape: An area  in  land and/or water  territories,  in which human  interactions with nature
create  uniqueness  in  natural  beauty  or  ecology  or  culture,  and  generally  abundant  in  biological
resources. Maintaining  the  interaction  that  is  traditional  is  important  to  age  and  life  for  defence,
maintain and development of such area.
Natural Heritage Site: An area  in  land and/or water  territories,  in which  there  is natural or semi-natural
uniqueness  and  has  outstanding  or  extraordinary  value  because  that  area  is  rare,  of  a  quality  that
represents the ecosystem, or of beauty or cultural importance.
Biosphere Reserve: An area representing an ecosystem  that  is  important and not  severely damaged, and
surrounded by sustainable development zones, allowed for limited human activities.
Ramsar Site: Wetland that is considered as an area of ecological or biological importance of international
nature.
Wetland: An area covered by mud and decayed trees, covered by water naturally or artificially, covered by
permanent or seasonal floods, or still water or flowing water,  including sea areas  less  than 6m deep
during lowest tides.
Marine Park: A coastal area which  is affected by marine  tides mixed with water from mountain forests,
including islands, covered by forests, plants, wildlife and fish of all kinds, with historical and cultural
value and this area is recognized by law to be managed effectively.
Provincial/Municipal Protected Area: Land, fresh water, sea and islands that are protected and managed
for the purpose of protecting and conserving biological resources, tradition, belief and religion in the
area and for sustainable use of natural resources.
Protected Slope: A catchment area that prevents soil erosion.
Coastal  Area:  Land  adjacent  to  the  sea  and  affected  by  the  sea,  located  in  Kampot,  Koh  Kong,
Sihanoukville, and Kepville, including all the sea territory extending to the economic boundaries of the
Kingdom of Cambodia.
Indigenous Ethnic Minority: Indigenous people  living  in mountainous areas, most of whom make  their
living by practicing shifting agriculture and other additional livelihoods, such as hunting, fishing, and
collection of forest products/by-products.
Sustainability: The state of not causing permanent or gradual erosion, or deterioration of quality of living
organisms or other resources in the form of small or large scale use.
Ecotourism: Tourist services that do not adversely affect the natural environment and have the forms and
trends which serve conservation activities.
Family Use: The use of natural resources, including trees, wild animals, forestland, etc., which have passed
from generation to generation, and these activities do not serve any commercial/business purposes.
Traditional  Use:  Includes  collection  of  naturally-dead  woods,  by-products  for  traditional  medicines,
vegetables and fruits, and legal hunting to meet only the occasional needs of the family.
Product/By-Product:  Products  from  the  forest,  including  timber  and  non-timber  products,  and  their
processed products, as well as services provided by timber.
Community: Refers  to  a  group  of  villagers  in  one  or more  villages  in Kingdom  of Cambodia who  are
interested in social problem, environment, tradition, and economy and in the use of sustainable national
resources of one area where they are living in or near that area with purpose to feed life and improve the
standard of living.
Local  community: Refers  to  indigenous  ethnic minority  communities  or  a group of  villagers who  have
original  houses  in  one  or more  villages  that  are  in  or  near  State’s  forest  areas  that  have  tradition,
costume, belief, religion, culture and living by depending on finding product, by-product and use those
forest resources as basic.
Natural  resource:  Is one part of national  environment  such  as  atmosphere, water,  land,  forest, wildlife,
mine,  and general  environment  resources  that human uses directly or  indirectly  in  the past, now or
future for supporting their priority and promoting the standard of living.

2. OBJECTIVES OF PROTECTED AREAS MANAGEMENT

1. National Park
1. Protect  the natural area and  landscape  that are of national and  international  importance  for  the
purposes of psychology, science, education, recreation, and tourism.
2. Maintain priority for physio-geographical samples for areas, living resources community, genetic
resources and species to offer stability and ecological variations.
3. Manage the use by tourists for the psychological, educational, cultural, and recreational purposes
to the extent that can ensure limited to no disturbances to the area.
4. Eliminate and prevent illegal use and occupation of any part of the area.
5. Maintain  the  respect  for ecological privileges,  land  shape,  sacredness or beauty, which are  the
causes for the establishment of such protected areas.
6. Meet the needs of indigenous groups, including the use of alternative resources, at a level that can
meet other objectives of management.

2. Wildlife Sanctuary
1. Protect and maintain the conditions of necessary habitats for living species, particularly important
wild animals that require management interventions.
2. Serve the scientific research and environmental surveillance fields with the purpose of sustainably
managing the natural resources inside and outside the area.
3. Serve public education and understanding of the interdependency of relevant habitats and wildlife
management.
4. Eliminate and prevent illegal use and occupation of any part of the area.
5. Provide people, especially the local community living in the wildlife sanctuary, with benefits at a
level that can ensure compatibility with other management objectives.

3. Protected Landscape
1.   Maintain  the complementary  interactions of natural and cultural factors,  through protection of
inland natural landscape or coastal or island natural landscape, or a mixture of both, and maintain
the traditional patterns of land use, patterns of construction, and performance through social and
cultural activities.
2. Support traditional lifestyle and economic activities that are compatible with nature and maintain
connections between social and cultural activities of relevant communities.
3. Maintain the variation of landscape and habitats, as well as relevant species and ecosystem.
4. Eliminate and prevent the use of land and activities that are inappropriate in terms of size or form,
or both.
5.  Provide  opportunity  for  public  enjoyment,  through  recreation  and  tourist  activities,  that  are
compatible, in terms of size and form, with the main qualities of the area.
6. Encourage research and educational activities that contribute  in the  long term to supporting the
well-being of people  in the area and mobile public support for environmental protection of the
area.
7. Benefit  and  contribute  to  supporting  the well-being  of  local  community  through  provision  of
natural products and services.

4. Multiple Use Site
1. Protect and maintain biodiversity and long-term natural value of the area.
2. Promote management for responding to the objective of generating sustainable products.
3. Protect the base of natural resources to prevent diversion of land use in the form that cause threats
to the biodiversity of the area.
4. Contribute to the national and local economy and development.

5. Ramsar Site
Protect  the  resources  in wetlands which  are of  international  interest  and of  ecological or biological
importance,  especially  for  serving  as habitats  for water birds  that are  threatened  and  sharply declined  in
number, and as habitats for migrating water birds.

6. Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve
The Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve is established to:
1. Conserve biodiversity, landscape, land shape and ecosystem, including genetic resources, plant,
fish and animal species, and restore the biological environment and habitat.
2. Support sustainable ecological, environmental, economic, social and cultural development.
3. Support activities,  including  implementation of demonstration projects,  training,  research,  and
surveys  to  monitor  the  environmental  changes,  in  relation  to  sustainable  development  and
conservation at local, national, and international levels.

7. Natural Heritage Site
1.  Protect  and  maintain  the  sustainability  of  natural  features  because  of  their  implicit  natural
importance,  uniqueness  and  representation  of  the  ecosystem,  and  their  importance  for
psychological help, or importance resulting from a combination of these factors.
2. Provide opportunity for research, education, explanation about nature, and public participation at
a level that can ensure compatibility with the first point above.
3. Eliminate and prevent use and occupation that are not in line with or cause harm to the objectives
of the establishment of the protected area.
4. Provide people who live in the natural heritage site (if any) with benefits at a level that can ensure
compatibility with other management objectives

8. Marine Park
1. Maintain and protect marine biological resources and functions of forest.
2. Maintain and protect the quality of marine environment for the long term.
3. Maintain and protect historical site and value of cultural and natural privileges of the sea.
4. Provide opportunity for scientific research, education, recreation, and marine ecotourism.

9. Wetland, Protected Slopes, Coastal Areas to Be Established for Management and Conservation
1. Maintain  and  protect  the  functions  of  nature  in  the  area  against  erosion,  natural  damage,  and
development around the area.
2. Provide opportunity and socio-economic benefits to the community at present and in the future.
3. Provide opportunity for scientific research, education, recreation, and ecotourism.    23

10. Provincial/Municipal Protected Area
1. Maintain biological resources and ecosystem for the benefit of the community at present and in
the future.
2. Maintain and protect natural landscape, forest and wildlife, cultural and historical resources of the
province/city.
3.  Sustainably  use  resources  available  in  the  area  through  planning,  research  and  careful
implementation of activities.
4. Limit public use.

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